The word “Kremlin” in Russian means fortress. In early Rus every town had a fortress where the main buildings, churches and cathedrals were. The Moscow fortress, the cradle of the city, is the main fortress in the country and it has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. It was built in XII century, but it took its modern form only in XV century and now it serves as an excellent reflection of different stages of Russian art, a single monumental centre of architecture, painting, decorative and applied arts. The best craftsmen and artists worked in its churches, cathedrals and palaces, leaving us priceless works. The power and fame of Russia is concentrated on its streets. Even at the present time, they are all main organs of religion and political government: the President’s Palace, different administrative and military buildings such as the Senate and Armoury, and also numerous churches and cathedrals. Its walls tower above the Moscow River and Red Square and are made from 8 kg bricks (the height is 5-19 meters and width 2235 m). We will visit the fortress to enjoy the view of the world’s biggest "Tsar-bell," melted in 1733 and the "Tsar-gun", which is one of the biggest guns in the world that has ever been made, melted in 1586 by Andrew Chokhov. Its purpose was to defend the gate of the Spasskaya, but it has never been used. To conclude, we will cross the Cathedral Square, surrounded by the Dormition Cathedral, the Cathedral of the Annunciation and the Cathedral of the Archangel.
The Armoury is the oldest and most important museum in Russia. It is supposed to have been built in 1485, though the first record of it was in 1547. Its collections include costumes for the crowning of the tsar, made of the most expensive materials, leather and incrusted with precious stones, the tsar’s carriages, thrones incrusted with diamonds, jewellery, and weapons, all having belonged to the royal family. Housed there are also the world-known Faberge Eggs, and the so-called “Crown of Monomachos,” presented by the King of the Byzantine Empire, Konstantin Monomachos, which has been used at each coronation of tsars since 1547.